Protected Tillage and No-tillage Cultivation Techniques of Main Agricultural Technology in 2009

This year's Central Document No. 1 clearly stated that it is necessary to vigorously promote resource-saving agricultural technologies, reform agricultural farming systems and planting methods, and carry out pilot subsidy for the promotion of no-tillage cultivation techniques. The Ministry of Agriculture's "2007 Agricultural Leading Variety and Main Pushing Technology" has made conservation tillage and no-tillage cultivation techniques the top 30 key push technologies. The Provincial Department of Agriculture has also listed this technology as a major agricultural practical technology project this year to promote it. Promoting this technology to benefit the country and the people is more conducive to the sustainable development of agriculture.
1. What is conservation tillage and no-tillage cultivation technology? The so-called conservation tillage technology refers to the implementation of no-tillage and less tillage on farmland, covering the ground with straw residue, which can not only preserve water, preserve soil, protect the ecological environment, but also save costs. A farming technique that increases efficiency, increases production, and increases income.
2. Why to promote conservation tillage and no-tillage cultivation techniques Conservation tillage and no-tillage cultivation are the objective requirements for building conservation agriculture. Promoting no-tillage cultivation techniques can achieve the unity of energy saving, water saving and fertilizer saving. One is energy saving. The most direct effect of no-tillage cultivation is to reduce the cost of farming and reduce energy consumption. The second is water saving. No-tillage cultivation can cover the ground with crop straws, reduce the evaporation of water and reduce evaporation, and increase the ability of farmland to conserve water and water, so as to achieve the purpose of water conservation and water conservation. Generally, 40 to 60 cubic meters of water can be saved per mu.
No-tillage cultivation is an urgent need to build environmentally friendly agriculture. Promote no-tillage cultivation techniques, less moving soil, more coverage, can reduce dust. In recent years, China has promoted conservation tillage cultivation with no-tillage cultivation as its core. It has achieved remarkable results in reducing the dust sources and reducing the damage. The combination of no-tillage cultivation and straw returning can also be used to fertilize the soil, improve soil physical and chemical properties, and continuously improve the quality of cultivated land. In addition, the return of straw to the field avoids the environmental pollution caused by straw burning and abandonment to the atmosphere, water, and soil.
No-tillage cultivation is an effective way to achieve stable food development and increase farmers' income. No-tillage cultivation can ensure timely sowing of large areas of crops, improve the quality of sowing, achieve early-onset seedlings and strong seedlings, resist drought, low temperature and other disasters, while simultaneously saving costs and increasing efficiency. It is estimated that the efficiency increase will be 80-100 yuan per mu.
No-tillage cultivation technology is a practical need for coordinating urban and rural development and adapting to the new situation of rural development. No-tillage cultivation simplifies the agrarian process, alleviates the tensions of the summer harvest and summer harvest, and the labor shortage of autumn harvest and autumn crops. It adapts to the new situation of the labor force output of most of the rural young labor force, greatly reducing the labor intensity, liberating the productivity, and increasing the number of farmers. Income creates favorable conditions.
III. Techniques for no-tillage cultivation Techniques for orange straw and surface treatment Wheat straw is treated with a wheat combine harvester to uniformly disperse the straw during the three summers to maintain good surface coverage and reduce the impact on sowing. Sanqiu treats corn stalks by using the straw returning machine to chop the stalks. If the straw is used for another purpose, some of it can be transported away, but it must be ensured that straw is covered throughout the process, and the straw coverage after sowing is not less than 30%. The task of surface treatment is to level the ground and eliminate weeds to improve the quality of sowing.
2. No-tillage fertilization sowing technique The no-tillage fertilization sowing technique is the key to conservation tillage and must be completed with a suitable no-tillage planter. In addition to meeting the normal seed fertilizer sowing, seed spacing, spacing requirements, the seeder should have good passability and reliability, to avoid being blocked by straw weeds, affecting the quality of sowing. The depth of sowing of wheat is 3~4cm, and the corn is 5~7cm. Fertilizer should be applied below or below the seed and keep a distance of 3~5cm from the seed to avoid burning seedlings. After sowing, the overburdened land was well-pressed. When the amount of soil to be sowed at the time of sowing is small, when rotating tillage is used for sowing, the area of ​​rotational tillage shall not exceed 30% of the total area. Try to use open trenches, fertilization, sowing, earth covering, suppression of one-stop operation.
3. Integrated control technologies for weeds and diseases and pests Weeds and pest control are another key technology for implementing conservation tillage. The control measures for weeds are mainly spraying herbicides after sowing, manual weeding and chemical weeding during the growing season of corn. Diseases and pests should be mainly prevention, and spray protection should be used when severe.
4. Deep-sweeping has been abolished in the deep-soil technology conservation tillage, but mechanical operations and human and animal husbandry continue to compact the soil. Therefore, soil should be loosened for a certain period of time. Our land is usually carried out after the summer harvest, once every two years, depth 30 to 40 cm.