Rapeseed is a cross-pollination crop that is highly susceptible to string pollination, resulting in reduced quality of rapeseed. Relevant studies have shown that cultivation measures and environmental conditions have a great influence on erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Therefore, only promotion and popularization of double-low rapeseed cultivation and supporting cultivation techniques can ensure that commercial rapeseed and rapeseed meal meet double-low standards and achieve The purpose of ensuring high yields, increasing production, and increasing income.
Increasing production and efficiency: Promoting high-yield cultivation techniques for double-low rapeseed can significantly improve the nutritional quality of rapeseed oil, and increase the utilization value of rapeseed meal. The economic and social benefits are very obvious, and there is broad prospect for popularization and application. If the value per kilogram of canola is calculated at 0.1 yuan, the value of high-quality rapeseed per mu can reach about 12 yuan. Based on the average yield increase of 10 kilograms, the average yield per mu can be increased by more than 20 yuan, and farmers can increase production and income. In addition, oil and fat processing companies and feed processing companies can reduce production costs and increase processing value due to the improvement of the quality of commercial rapeseed, and the overall benefit can be increased by 10% to 20%, with significant social benefits.
Technical points: The double-low rapeseed cultivation and high-yielding cultivation technology is an integrated high-quality, high-yielding technology that integrates optimization of regional layout, selection of improved varieties, cultivation of strong seedlings, scientific fertilization, comprehensive prevention and control, field management, and single collection and storage. :
1. Use suitable varieties. Selecting high-yield, multi-resistant double-low rapeseed varieties, the upper reaches of the Yangtze River can be selected from the two low-quality varieties such as Youyan, Rongyou, Chuanyou, Noza, and Zhihuang. In the middle reaches of China, hybrids such as Huaza, Zhongyouza, Zhongshuang, Huashuang, and Xiangzao can be used. In the downstream areas, Yangyou 6, Ningyou 14, Suyou 1, Zheshuang 72, and Huyou 16 can be selected.
2. Contiguous planting. It is forbidden to plant flowers with non-high-quality varieties to ensure that the double-low varieties are concentrically connected, and where possible, they will strive for one product at a time. Select flat land, medium and high fertility, in line with the quality standards of pollution-free arable land, convenient irrigation and drainage, and planting of non-cruciferous crops.
3. Early sowing and early planting. To select a soil with fertile soil, convenient irrigation and drainage, and a non-cruciferous vegetable plot as a seedbed, the ratio of seedbeds to fields should be about 1:5, and no more than 1:10. And as a fine soil preparation, ditching, basal fertilizer, Mushi human livestock manure about 1000 kg, boron 0.5 kg. The suitable sowing dates for the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River are generally at mid-September and mid-September. Suitable sowing dates for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River are in mid- and late September. Mu sowing volume 0.5 ~ 0.75 kg.
4. Breeding seedlings. Qi Miao as soon as possible to go back to the pile of seedlings, 1 leaf ~ 2 leaves during the seedlings, 3 leaf period by "go weak to stay strong, go to the sick stay healthy, to leave the pure and leave the principle of" Dingmiao, left 100 seedlings per square meter or so. Combined with Dingmiao, remove weeds. Seeding seedlings per acre to see after 1000 ~ 1500 kg of diluted manure water. 3 leaf stage per acre seedbed with 15% paclobutrazol 30 ~ 40 grams of water 40 ~ 50 kg evenly spray.
5. Ditching the ground. After the harvest, the hoe was ploughed and ditched in time, and the basal fertilizer was applied in combination. The general width of 2 to 3 meters is appropriate, the width of the groove is 20 to 25 centimeters, and the depth of the groove is 15 to 30 centimeters. The Chaoyanggou planted well.
6. Careful planting, scientific fertilization. According to the level of soil fertility, the way of transplanting, and the early and late feeding, the optimum transplanting density can be reasonably determined. Generally 800-12000 plants per acre, live rape can increase density appropriately. When transplanting, it should be planted straight, roots must be planted and trees should be planted deeply. The seedlings were planted on the edge, the seedlings were planted separately, the seedling roots were planted, and the tall seedlings were planted. After planting, watering live trees to reduce the period of seedlings. The total amount of fertilizer applied in Daejeon is 12.5 to 15 kg per gram of pure nitrogen, 6 to 8 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 8 to 12 kg of potassium oxide, of which 50% of the total nitrogen application and 80% of the total phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are used. Basal fertilizer, the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 1:0.4-0.5:0.5-0.8, and nitrogen fertilizer is the basic fertilizer: seedling wax fertilizer: the ratio of moss fertilizer is 5:2:3. The application of borax from 0.5 to 0.75 kg per acre at the bottom of the rapeseed and bud stage was sprayed with 0.2% borax solution.
7. Lisangou, anti-staining and drainage, timely prevention and control of pests and weeds. After the completion of transplanting, both internal and external tri-division refurbishment and clean-up work will be carried out in winter and spring to ensure that the ditches are in common and dry irrigation can be performed. At the beginning of wintering, over 40 kg of water was sprayed on 30 kg of paclobutrazol per mu for the flourishing area of â€‹â€‹Wangchang block, and combined with the application of wax to prevent root freezing. Areas where conditions can be covered with straw, covering 200-300 kilograms per acre grass, warming antifreeze suppressing grass. Before wintering, one time is divided according to field grasses. Generally weeds dominated by grasses and weeds were used in the weeds of 3 to 5 leaf-leaves with 10.8% of high-efficient gaisengergok emulsifiable concentrates of 20 to 30 milliliters, and sprayed with 40 kilograms of water; the fields were dominated by dicotyledonous weeds. Block, use 30% more water per mu, 50 ml of water spray. The first flowering period of rape with 50% blessing sclerotia 80 grams or other compounding agent for 40 ~ 50 kg of water evenly spray, control sclerotinia, 5 to 7 days after the drug to spray again. When there are 20% locust strains in the field and more than 300 pods per 100 strains, pesticide sprays should be used in a timely manner.
8. Stop miscellaneous, detect acquisitions. When 80% of the main shaft of the plant turns yellow, it is harvested and used in the morning or late afternoon to prevent loss of cracked corners. The rapeseed should be transported to the site for accumulation for 2 to 3 days to promote post-harvest and increase grain weight. After being piled up, spread the sun for 1 to 2 days and then thresh, and then dry the net (less than 9% moisture content) into the warehouse. In the process of harvesting, transporting, threshing, and warehousing, single harvesting, single release, and prevention of mechanical miscellaneous. It is forbidden to mix and store mixed objects with other odors, toxic, harmful and corrosive substances. Warehousing, disinfection, and fumigation agents shall comply with the relevant national provisions on food hygiene and safety.
Appropriate area: This technology is suitable for popularization and application in most areas of the Yangtze River basin